Kertanagara and Kublai Khan

King Kertanagara prepared himself physically and spiritually to face the threat from Kublai Khan. Upon deciding that he was strong enough, Kublai Khan’s envoy, Meng-Ch’i, who came in 1289 to ask for the submission of King Kertanagara, was turned away and his face was scarred.

The abuse of Kublai Khan’s envoy was seen as a big insult and as a declaration of war. Immediately Kublai Khan ordered a strong military attack on Java. In 1292 the Mongolian army departed to invade Java, led by the three commanders Shih-pi, Iheh-mi-shih and Kau Hsing.

In the end, however, the fall of the Singhasari kingdom came not from an outside attack by the Mongolian army sent by Kublai Khan to punish the king of Java, but from within the kingdom itself.