The Shaivite gods in Old Javanese texts and inscriptions
The Tantu Panggelaran, a late East Javanese text from the sixteenth century, mentions the group of gods in a Shaiva temple. It explains how two rakshasas (giants), named Kala and Anukala, paid homage to Lord Parameshvara (Shiva) and asked him to rule over mankind. Shiva declared that their wish would become true at the end of time, when the world would be destroyed and born again. Shiva added that, until that time, Kala and Anukala should perform yoga and protect the western gate of Mount Meru, the sacred mountain that stands at the centre of the universe. According to the same text, Ganesha was ordered to guard the eastern gate, Agastya the southern gate and Gauri (another name for Shiva’s wife, who is also known as Parvati or Durga) the northern one. In the Smaradahana the guardians of the entrance, called Kala and Anukala in the Tantu Panggelaran, have the more common names of Nandishvara and Mahakala. In this text, too, they are said to have received orders from Shiva to guard the entrance. In the imprecation parts of Old Javanese inscriptions Nandishvara and Mahakala are among the gods who are summoned as witnesses of the imprecation, together with Agastya, Durga and Ganesha, as in the inscription at Sangguran (AD 928).