Ganesha in the Smaradahana

The only Javanese text relating Ganesha’s story that came down to us gives a different version. In the Smaradahana, an old Javanese poem written in the twelfth century as a eulogy for a king of Kediri, Ganesha is the direct fruit of Shiva’s union with Parvati. According to this version, Parvati, while pregnant, was frightened by the sudden arrival of Indra riding his elephant Airavata. Because of her fear, her son was born with an elephant head.